E-journal of All India Association for Educational Research (EJAIAER)


    VOL.20                            Nos:  3 & 4                 September & December, 2008




                              K.C. Kapoor

H. Bam

R.K. Mahto



Arunachal Pradesh is a tribal population dominated State having an area of 83,578 sq. kms with10,91,117 total population and  density of 13 persons/sq. km. (census  2001).There are about 22 major tribes and nearly 45 sub- tribes who maintain group identity and speak different dialects. There was hardly any social, economic and educational development in Arunachal Pradesh during the British period because of their policy of isolation. But after independence, the Government of India took some initiatives for the social, economic and educational development of tribal people of Arunachal Pradesh which was known as North East Frontier Agency (NEFA) during those days. In case of educational development, Arunachal Pradesh did not inherit any system of its own rather the system of education which was found in other parts of the country, the same was planted too. The history of educational development in Arunachal Pradesh is of great significance from the stand point of the view of change and trend of the society. There was possibility of having an original and new system of education in this territory, because the land was hidden and neither the ancient nor the medieval education had any sign of influence here till 1947.Of course, during this period, Buddhist Monasteries  imparted education in Kameng (Tawang, Dirang, Rupa and Bomdila) and Tirap districts.


There was no  attempt by the British rulers in India to establish educational institutions. In 1918, the first school was set up by the local tribal people at Pasighat. In 1922, another  school was opened by Adis of Dibang Valley  at  Dambuk. Subsequently, schools were started in 1934 at Nengroo, in 1940 at Bolung and at  Riga (1940), in 1946 at Balek, in 1947 at Along, Daring, Ledum, Pang, and Yomcha. The medium of instruction was Assamese in all those schools. The Department of Education was established in 1947. The office of the Education Officer used to be at Sadiya. In 1952, the office of the Education Officer was shifted to Marghereta in Assam, as Sadiya town was washed out due to the flood.



In 1947, the first teachers’ training institute of its own kind was established by Indira Miri at Sadiya. It  was called Bunyadi Shiksha Bhawan (BSB). It  was to prepare the teachers taking into account the needs and problems of the tribal pupils at primary and upper primary schools of the territory.  Its curriculum  was need based in nature. The first batch of 10 trained teachers was produced in August 1948. All  these teachers were sent to open new schools on 15th August 1948. In the year 1952, this teachers’ training institute was shifted to Marghereta and finally it was taken and located at Changlang in Arunachal Pradesh.

Course Structure of Bunyadi Shiksha Bhawan (BSB)

Pedagogical Theory (50%)

Teacher and Education in the Emerging Indian Society.

Child Psychology.

Organisation and Management

Content-cum Methodology(50%)

Teaching of English.

Environmental Studies-I & II.

Teaching of Mathematics.

Teaching of Hindi.

Work Education

Health and Physical Educatio

It was one year programme. This course structure did not have  component like ‘Working with Community.BSB institute used to organise teaching practice.This course was designed and organised for in-service primary school teachers only.  Duration of the primary teacher  education programme was one year. There was only one training institute in the State from the year 1947 to 1988-89. In 1990-91,  this training institute was converted to DIET.



The State Institute of Education, Changlang was established in 1982 with Sri D.D. Trivedi as the first Principal. In March 1986, 6 subject specialists were appointed, one for each school subject,  in the rank of group-B gazetted. During 1988, 3 Trained Graduate Teachers (TGT) were posted under the scheme of District Centre for English funded by the CIEFL, Hyderabad. The scheme was  abolished in  1994.Till date, the SIE Changlang does not have its own building. It has only a few rooms scattered in the campus of DIET Changlang. This creates a problem in working and co-ordination. The Institute has a hostel of its own. It does not possess adequate physical infrastructure.  There is a e Principal, and some supporting staff, but, no faculty. Its Population Education Cell was established in 1990, which  has produced some instructional material on population education for elementary and secondary school teachers. It  has been organising orientation programmes for the school teachers and other educational functionaries.


DISTRICT INSTITUTES OF EDUCATION & TRAINING (DIETS)                                            

BSB Changlang is the first DIET of the State. During 1995-96, 10 more DIETs were sanctioned by MHRD, New Delhi. Out of these 11 DIETs, only 6 DIETs are functional. These   are  located at  Naharlagun, Pasighat, Dirang, Roing, Seppa and Changlang.  Buildings for remaining 5 DIETs are under construction. DIETs run a  pre-service teacher education (PSTE) course leading to Diploma in Elementary Education (D. E. Ed.). Apart from this, in-service teacher training programmes are being conducted. The newly recruited teachers under the scheme of SSA are being provided induction training. Each DIET has a principal ,  six lecturers and 2 ministerial staff.


Course Structure of Diploma in Elementary Teacher Education Pedagogical Theory (20%)

Emerging Indian Society.

Child Psychology.

Elementary Education: Status Problems and Issues with special reference to Arunachal Pradesh.

Information and Communication Technology.

Early Childhood Care Education.

Psychology of Teaching and Learning.

School Organisation and Management.

Adult Education/Population Education/Value Education.

Working with community (20%)

Content-cum Methodology and Practice Teaching including related Practical Work (60%)

Teaching of English-I&II

Teaching of Mathematics-I&II

Teaching of Healthy and Productive Living.

Teaching of Hindi-I&II

Teaching of Environmental Studies.

Teaching of Science and Technology.

Teaching of Social Science.

Teaching of Art Education.

Teaching of Work Education.

Teaching of Health and Physical Education.

School Experience Programme.

Practice Teaching.

Duration of the course is of two years.



The DRCSE was established in the year 1990 at Pasighat in East Siang district of the state. This centre used to organize short term refresher/orientation programmes and work shops for the Science and Mathematics teachers of Secondary level. This centre is controlled by the Deputy Director of School Education, However, at present it seems to be inactive as its faculties are attached to DIET Pasighat for training purposes. There are 3 senior teachers of Biology, Chemistry and Mathematics whose services are being used in DIET for all training purposes.



The State Resource Centre, set up in 1989,  takes care of adult education Scheme.It also covers population education, drug abuse, health care, care of mother and child care. Some time training is given  for income generation. There is also training facility  on  music, tailoring, knitting, weaving etc.



There was no teacher education programme for secondary school teachers in Arunachal Pradesh till the year 1987. In 1988,the Department of Education was created  in Rajiv Gandhi University (Formerly, Arunachal University) at  Rono Hills Campus with one professor, two readers and four lecturers.  B.Ed programme was launched in the same year  with an  intake capacity of 20,  out of which 16 candidates were deputed by the State government for B.Ed. course and 4 candidates were fresh graduates, admitted on merit basis. Others courses being offered by the   Department of Education include M.A (Education);M.Ed. and  Ph.D. programmes.


B. Ed. Course

1st Semester

Teacher and Society

Educational Psychology

Teaching Specialisation (Any two out of the following: Science; History; English/Hindi; Mathematics; Geography

Special courses (Opt-I) (Any one from Group-A) (Adult and Non-Formal Education; Education for Exceptional Children; Human Rights, Values and Peace Education; and Environmental Education)

Teaching Practice and Viva

2nd Semester

Educational Technology and Curriculum Evaluation

Problems of Education in India with special reference to North East Region

Educational and Vocational Guidance

Special courses (Opt-II) (Any one from Group-A)(Education and Rural Development; Educational Administration; Population Education; Pre-School Education)


A minimum of 20 lessons in each of the two teaching specialisation are required to be delivered by each  pupil teacher. The practice teaching is evaluated by Board of Examiners appointed by the University. They observe at least on teaching class taken by each candidate and also hold viva-voce after the class observation. The Board awards one of the following grades to practice teaching: Grade ‘O’ out standing: Above 75%, Grade ‘A’: Very Good 65% to 74.99%, Grade ‘B’: Good: 55% to 64.99%, Grade ‘C’: Average: 45% to 54.99%, and Grade ‘D’: Failed: Below 45%.


The Department possessed two Professors, two Readers and 6 lecturers for the teaching of B. Ed., M. Ed, and M.A courses. The performance of B.Ed. students remained satisfactory as the pass percentage of B.Ed. students from 1988 to 2007 happened to be from 80.15% to 100%. The M.Ed. one year programme was offered from 1990-91 to 1992-93 for about three years with the intake capacity of 5 candidates and the pass percentage remained 100% in all the three years. The department introduced M.A (Education) two year programme in the year 1993 and this two year M.A (Education) became very popular. There is pressure in every academic session for the increase of seats. Of course, the performance of students is not very satisfactory as compared to B.Ed. and M.Ed. students. In the year 2000, the semester system was introduced and as a result the performance of the B.Ed. as well as M.A students improved so much so that it has gone above 90% and in most of the years it has been recorded 100% In addition to the Department of Education, B.Ed. programmes are also run by  two colleges of Teacher Education located at Naharlagun and Pasighat.



Till now no government college of teacher education has been established except Dept of Education of Rajiv Gandhi University. However two private colleges have come up. One is located at Itanagar called ‘Hills College of Teacher Education’ with an intake capacity of 100 which was established in 2005. Another college called ‘Doying Gumin College of Teacher Education’ is located at Pasighat which has been established in 2007. Both the colleges are affiliated to the Rajiv Gandhi University and semester system of examination is practiced. The courses are of one year so far. 



Block Resource Centres & Cluster Resource Centres

After the implementation of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan in Arunachal Pradesh all the Districts have established Block Resource Centers (BRC) and Cluster Resource Centers (CRC).. Accordingly, the Block Resource Center coordinators (BRCC) and the Cluster Resource Center Coordinator (CRCC) were appointed from among the  school teachers  as per merit and qualification. There are 90 BRCs, 166 CRCs, 101 BRPs and 124 CRPs under the scheme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan  For the last three years, these centres have been imparting training. More than 4000 teachers and resource person were trained through these BRCs and CRCs which may be considered a milestone in context of teacher education in Arunachal Pradesh.



The State does not have any training institution which provides the training to pre-primary school teachers. Teacher Educators and pupil teachers face a problem of transportation as the training institutions are located away from the township at a distance of 5 to 7 kms and the transport facilities are not adequately available. It has been observed that the teacher training institutions possess inadequate physical infrastructure but, some of the equipments are badly needed in the institutions and those are LCD projector, Video Camera, Computers, Educational Technology laboratory, Psychology laboratory, Internet facilities etc. The teacher education curriculum needs some modifications in content cum methodology and the process of teaching practice. The biggest problem is that there is no demonstration school with any of the college of teacher education. Institutions are to depend on some schools located at distant places and some times   unable to get for the purpose. The  teacher educators possess the academic qualifications like- M.A./ M. Sc., B. Ed. (78%), M. Ed. (15%), M. Phil. (3%) and Ph. D. (4%). The majority of teacher are M.A./ M. Sc., B. Ed.  There is shortage of teacher educators in the institutions and as a result, the teacher educators are found over loaded which dilute the quality of their teaching. The quality of any educational process depends upon the creative and research abilities of teachers. But, the teacher educators working in DIETs/CTEs do not get any facility for conducting research or getting some orientation relating to research activities. Except some university faculty members, there is no any other teacher educator who has published some papers / taken some research project. Further,  Arunachal Pradesh is a state which has extremely poor transportation and communication facilities. Therefore, the candidates do not  get various information pertaining to the admission in these teacher education institutions. The DIETs do not  have hostel facilities, but, other teacher education institutions do not provide hostel facilities and the pupil teachers  suffer.  The teacher education programmes seems to be more theoretical in nature as the teacher educators give more time to theory papers and a very less time to teaching practice and other practical activities.The library facilities are also quite inadequate.



Educational development is gaining momentum at a very fast rate and educational institutions are coming up at a large scale in the state. But, the teacher education institutions are very limited in number. These institutions are unable to meet the demand of trained teachers of the state. Secondly, there is a need to improve the infrastructure of these training institutions and to look for qualitative teacher educators. The State possesses about 600 pre-primary schools and there is not even a single training institution for providing the trained pre-primary school teachers. Serious and sincere efforts are to be made for quantitative improvements in the teacher education programmes of the State.